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불교적 관점에서 본 장애의 교육적 함의

The Educational Implications of Disability from the Perspective of Buddhism,

김정식 (Kim, Jeong Sik, 경상대학교 교육대학원)

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The purpose of this study is to search for the educational meaning of disability as the practical subject by understanding it from the perspective of Buddhism. The main ideas of Buddhism include the topics such as fourfold noble truth(四聖諦), karma(業), dependent origination(緣起), middle way(中道) and emp...
The purpose of this study is to search for the educational meaning of disability as the practical subject by understanding it from the perspective of Buddhism. The main ideas of Buddhism include the topics such as fourfold noble truth(四聖諦), karma(業), dependent origination(緣起), middle way(中道) and emptiness(空) and are addressed to solve the sufferings through the right understanding of all beings. Most of precedented studies regarding Buddhism and disability, however, have treated disability as the result of ‘karmic result(因果應報)’, ‘karma’, ‘samsāra(sanskrit, 輪廻)’ in the substantial perspective with self-identity. The study observes the theoretical models in the field of disability studies, the concept and definition of disability, and the stereotypes and images of disability to refine the existing buddhistic perspectives on disability in view of the main buddhistic ideas such as fourfold noble truth, karma, twelve dependent arisings, middle way and emptiness. The study considers the subjects of fourfold noble truth and karma in relation to disability, treats the causation of disability based on the twelve dependent arisings and observes the differences and similarities of the disability and non-disabilities and non-difference of the disabled and non-disabled people, non-sameness of the disabled and non-disabled people based on Nagarjuna's eight fold middle ways and two fold middle ways. It examines the particularity and generality of disability in education and focuses on how to interpret the implications of disability in education from the perspective of Buddhism. The educational implications of disability from the perspective of Buddhism can be summarized as the following. First, education should cultivate wisdom to get over the useless argument(prapañca, 戱論) and help people understand the deep meanings of life by guiding people to insight the realities of the world and human existence. Second, it is necessary to exercise merciful behaviors to co-exist and cooperate with the disabled in the personal and social relationship as the human society and world is the reality created by the collective karma of all beings. Third, disabled students should be educated from the perspective of "the students in general", not from the particular perspective as the disabled. The particularity of a disabled student should not regarded as a model of defects but respected as the ‘difference’ with variety and personality. As disabled students have more similarities (generality) with non-disabled students than the differences(particularity) from non-disabled students, they should be educated based on the commonality. The study of the educational implications of disability from the perspective of Buddhism presents some suggestions to current education. First, the human consciousness about the disabled, which is centered on the non-disabled, must be changed and the foundations for the humanistic life and human right education must be secured to eradicate the discrimination and oppression toward the disabled and to improve the human rights of the disabled. Second, the obstacles that keep the disabled from participating in all social activities must be abolished to help the disabled exercise the same rights and duties with other members of the society in terms of the realization of mercy and the educational institutions must perform the essential roles to provide the disabled with equal opportunities. Third, the practical and feasible efforts should be applied to develop the potential of the disabled for them to lead self-reliable life, while admitting the diversity as they are by focusing on the commonalities considering the particularity and generality of disability in education. Lastly, the subject of disability should be considered in all aspects of education, at the same time, the purpose and direction of education must be reconsidered and the educational structure designed mostly for the non-disabled must be renewed.
목차moremore
Ⅰ. 서론 1
Ⅱ. 장애의 일반적 개념 5
1. 장애의 이론적 모델 5
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Ⅰ. 서론 1
Ⅱ. 장애의 일반적 개념 5
1. 장애의 이론적 모델 5
2. 장애의 개념 13
Ⅲ. 불교적 관점에서 본 장애 28
1. 사성제와 장애 29
2. 업 사상과 장애 37
3. 12연기와 장애 44
4. 중도 연기와 장애 54
Ⅳ. 장애의 교육적 함의 67
1. 지혜에 기반을 둔 올바른 인간관 정립 68
2. 공존과 상생을 위한 자비의 실천 70
3. 이제 상즉의 특수성과 보편성에 따른 교육 76
Ⅴ. 결론 80
참고 문헌 85